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Identification of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (bufotenine) in takini (Brosimum acutifolium Huber subsp. acutifolium C.C. Berg, Moraceae), a shamanic potion used in the Guiana Plateau
Received 30 May 2005;
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This paper is the first thorough analysis of takini, a hallucinogen used by the shamans of several peoples in Suriname, French Guiana, and the region east of the Para in Brazil. The drug is contained in the latex of the Brosimum acutifolium tree, and until now, its psychotropic properties appeared inconsistent with the more general medicinal uses of the tree in the surrounding region.
Our chemical and botanical studies reveal that the active ingredient of takini is bufotenine; and that this compound is only contained in the subspecies Brosimum acutifolium Huber subsp. acutifolium C.C. Berg that is found in the same area of the eastern Guianas.
Keywords: Bufotenine; 5-Hydroxy-tryptamine; Takini; Shamanism; Amerindians; Hallucinogenic beverage
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Drugs, Music, and Ideology: A Social Pharmacological Interpretation of the Acid House Movement
|Affiliations:||a PM & E Publishing Group, Boynton Beach, Florida|
|b Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts|
During the summer of 1988, a musical concert experience called Acid House arrived on the cultural scene in many British cities. The media created a frenzy of misinformation in reporting about the latest drug craze. Acid House music was then banned from the pop music charts, radio and television, and retail outlets. Some psychoactive substances have been bought, sold, and consumed at Acid House events, but drug use does not appear to be extensive. At the physiological level, the nature of Acid House music, especially the drumming aspect, seems instrumental in providing altered states of consciousness. At the interpersonal and social level, the set and setting of Acid House events further enhances and reinforces the specific physiological and psychological responses. The degree of acceptance by various subcultural groups may depend greatly on the amount of media and societal exposure given to it, particularly if authoritarian attempts to suppress it enhance its political or ideological aspects.
Keywords: Music; Acid House; Media; Altered states